Parliament is the supreme legislative body in India. It is bicameral, consisting of two houses, i.e., the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of People (Lok Sabha). There are at present 545 members from House of People and 245 from the Council of States. There are three sessions of Parliament (budget, monsoon and winter). The Parliament building is known as the Sansad Bhawan and is situated in New Delhi.
President of India
President of India being head of the State has been vested with the executive powers of the Union. He is also the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
Article 54 of the Constitution of India provides for the election of the President. He is elected indirectly by an Electoral College consisting of members of Parliament and State Legislature. The eligibility criteria is as written in the Constitution such as,one has to be a citizen of India, not below 35 years of age. He has to be qualified to be a member of Lok Sabha the house of People. Heshould not hold any office of profit.
The term of the office of the President is 5 years. He can be re-elected.
President is vested with several powers. He is required to give assent to Bills or withhold them. Executive powers include the appointment of Prime Minister and Council of Minister, judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, Auditor General, Comptroller and Attorney General are vested in him. He has the power under Article 72 of the Constitution to grant pardons, respites, reprieves or remissions of punishment or to remit, suspend or commute the sentence of a convict of any offence.
The President of India can be removed from office before the expiry of 5 years, by a process of impeachment, as provided for in Article 61 of the Constitution of India.
Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha together constitute the Parliament of India. Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the Parliament and is also known as the Council of States. The Constitution limits the number of members of Rajya Sabha to 250.
The Rajya Sabha consists of two hundred and thirty eight representatives of the States and the Union Territories. Additionally twelve members are nominated by the President of India.
Members of the upper house are elected indirectly. To qualify as a member, one must not be below the age of 30 years; his name should be in the voter list. The member must not be insolvent.
The term of a member of the Rajya Sabha is 6 years. Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution like the lower house.The ex-officio chairman of the upper house is the Vice-President of India. It gets the power to protect the rights of States against the Union.
Lok Sabha is the lower house of Parliament and is also known as the House of People. The Constitution limits the number of members of the Lok Sabha to 552. Representatives of the lower house are elected directly on the principle of adult suffrage. A member cannot be below 25 years of age, his name is required to be enlisted in electoral rolls and he should not hold any office of profit.
We have provided links to the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha websites.