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Rights of Child

Children are priceless treasures and gifts from God and it is in our hands to give them proper physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual protection.

Rights of children includes not only allowing children autonomous action but also ensuring by positive action that the children are physically, mentally and emotionally free from abuse.

Child rights are of utmost important in today’s time and circumscribe many issues relating to the child’s protection.

Some of the most important issues relating to the rights of the Child are child health, crime against children, child education, child labour, right to survival and development, child trafficking, social and psychological issues, teenage drinking, child marriage, street children and the rights of the girl child.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights is one of the basic documents laying international legal standards for children’s rights.

There are several other conventions and laws addressing children’s right e.g.,

a. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [Art. 24-special provision to child because of his minority, the right to a name and the right to a nationality].

b. Conventions on the Rights of the Child [4 core principles: the principle of non-discrimination, the best interests of the child, the right to life, survival and development and considering the views of the child on decisions affecting them].

c. The Child Rights Caucus for the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children [set up to give priority to the child rights during the UN General Assembly Special Session].

d. The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action [calls on states to integrate the Convention on the Rights of the Child into their national action plans].

In India too, we have enacted various laws and acts related to children to protect them and to give them a better and sound development. Some of the most important legislation on Child Rights in India are listed here.

The National Institute of public Co-operation & Child Development (NIPCCD) and the Integrated Child Development Services are some of the recent initiates made by Government in this regard. Even NHRC & UNICEF are also organizations which take special efforts to protect children rights.

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child-education

Education

The parliament of India enacted the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE) on August 2009. As per the act, education is a fundamental right of every child who is between the age of 6 to 14 years should have access to education.

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Health

Life, survival, maximum development, access to health and health services are not just basic needs of children and adolescents, but are fundamental human rights.


child-labour

Child Labour

India is sadly the home to the largest number of child labourers in the world. M.V. Foundation in Andhra Pradesh found nearly 400,000 children, mostly girls between seven and 14 years of age, toiling for 14-16 hours a day in cottonseed production across the country of which 90% are employed in Andhra Pradesh.

survival-and-development

Right to Survival & Development

 Right to survival includes the     following:
Right to be born
Right to minimum standards of food, shelter and clothing
Right to live with dignity
Right to health care, to safe drinking water, nutritious food, a clean and safe environment, and information to help them stay healthy.


child-trafficking

Child Trafficking

Approximately 600,000 to 800,000 victims are trafficked across international borders annually, and between 14,500 and 17,500 of those victims are trafficked into the United States each year. More than half of these victims worldwide are children.

social-psychological-issue

Social And Psychological Issues

Social And Psychological Issues includes:
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Emotional Abuse
Child Neglect


teenage-drinking

Teenage Drinking

Underage drinking is a widespread problem with often serious consequences. Young people who start using alcohol before age 21 are more likely to:
Be involved in violent behaviors
Attempt suicide
Engage in unprotected sex or have multiple sex partners
Develop alcohol problems in later life

child-marriage

Child Marriage

In some countries in the world child marriage is a 'normal' phenomenon. In Bangladesh, for example, 17 percent of girls marry before they are 15. The majority of married girls in Bangladesh have two children before they are eighteen years old. Child marriage is also common in East Africa. Traditions play an important role. Very young girls are forced to marry older men.


street-child

Street Children

Some street children, notably in more developed nations, are part of a subcategory called thrownaway children who are children that have been forced to leave home. The causes of this phenomenon are varied, but are often related to domestic, economic, or social disruption including, but not limited to: poverty; breakdown of homes and/or families; political unrest.

girl-child

Girl Child

Girls are equally as important as boys in the society to maintain the social equilibrium. Government of India has taken some positive steps regarding save girl child such as protection of women from domestic violence act 2005, ban of female infanticide, immoral traffic (prevention) act, proper education, gender equality.



Key Documents

United Nations Charter
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as amended by Protocols No. 11 and No. 14
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
United Nations Millennium Declaration
OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa
Geneva Convention relative to the treatment of prisoners of war of 12 August 1949
The Refugee Convention, 1951
Convention and Protocol relating to the status of refugees
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
Violation of Women Human Rights in India
Women's Rights are Human Rights
Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Rules, 1988
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
African Banjul Charter on Human and Peoples Rights
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action
Brussels European Council 29-30 October 2009
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Charter of the United Nations, 1945
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degarding Treatment or Punishment
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of as amended by Protocols no. 11 and 14
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 28.7.1951
Council Directive 2004-83-EC
Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence against Women
International Bill of Human Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees 16.12.1966
The Charter Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa Maputo Protocol
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 27 July 2012
United Nations Millennium Declaration
Convention on the Political Rights of Women, 1952
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
Intergovernmental Agreement on the Asian Highway Network
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Universal Declaration on Democracy, 1997
Universal Declaration of Human Rights,1948
Convention on a Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision- Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters
ABM Treaty
ACCOBAMS Agreement
Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels -ACAP_Agreement
Agreement on the Conservation of African Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds
Antarctic Treaty WC 1959
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution
Assistance Convention Vienna 1986
Bamako Convention 1991
Barcelona Convention 1976
Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution Resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Seabed
Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movement 1989
Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movement
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction 1975
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction
Bucharest Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution 1992
Canberra Convention 1980
Carpathian Convention - PROTOCOL
Carpathian Convention
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity
Cartagena Convention 1983
Chemical Weapons Convention
CITES Convention 1973
Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa
Convention for Protection & Development of Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region
Convention for the Protection of Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region 1986
Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992
Convention on Cluster Munitions
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident Vienna 1986
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas 1958
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution 1979
Convention on Nature Protection and Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere
Convention on Nuclear Safety 1994
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Others Matter
Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 1992 (HELSINKI CONVENTION)
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
Convention On the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accident 1992
International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas 1966
International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
International convention for the Regulation of Whaling 1946
International convention on civil liability for oil pollution damage (clc) 1992
International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea London 1996
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness Response and Co-Operation 1990
International Convention Relating to Intervention on the high Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties 1969
Kyoto Protocol 1997
Montreal Protocol 1989
Minamata Convention on Mercury
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 1987
Nairobi Convention 1985
North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
OSPAR Convention 1992
Adoption of the Paris Agreement 2015
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
Regional Convention, Jeddah 1982
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade Rotterdam 1998
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2001
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
US- Canada Air Quality Agreement
Vienna Convention On Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 1963
Waigani Convention 1995
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural
Agreement Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities
Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation 1994
Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1945
Constitution of the World Health Organization
Constitution of UNESCO
Convention of the World Meteorological Organization
Convention Establishing a Customs Cooperation Council
Doha amendment to the Kyoto Protocol
Geneva Convention I
Geneva Convention II
Geneva Convention III
Geneva Convention IV
Geneva Conventions -Protocol I
Hostages Convention
Madrid Agreement
Madrid Protocol
Nagoya Protocol
Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
SAARC Charter
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations 1963
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 1961
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
WIPO Convention
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World Organisations

united-nation

United Nation

world-trade-organisation

World Trade Organisation

world-health-organisation

World Health Organisation

World-Bank

World Bank

international-labour-org

International Labour Organisation

unfpa

UNFPA

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NGOs in India

goonj

Goonj

helpage-india

HelpAge India

nanhi-kali

Nanhi Kali

salaam-baalak

Salaam Baalak

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International NGOs

amazon-watch

Amazon Watch

freedom-house

Freedom House

human-right-foundation

Human Right Foundation

amnesty-international

Amnesty International

asiaeurope-foundation

Asia Europe Foundation

united-nation

Oxfam

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